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  Facebook data privacy scandal: A cheat sheet (part 2)

What are the key companies involved in the Facebook data privacy scandal?

In addition to Facebook, these are the companies connected to this data privacy story.

SCL Group( formerly Strategic Communication Laboratories) is at the center of the privacy scandal, though it has operated primarily through subsidiaries.
Nominally, SCL was a behavioral research/strategic communication company based in the UK. The company was dissolved on May 1, 2018.

Cambridge Analytica and SCL USA are offshoots of SCL Group, primarily operating in the US.
Registration documentation indicates the pair formally came into existence in 2013. As with SCL Group, the pair were dissolved on May 1, 2018.

Global Science Research was a market research firm based in the UK from 2014 to 2017.
It was the originator of the thisisyourdigitiallife app. The personal data derived from the app( if not the app itself) was sold to Cambridge Analytica for use in campaign messaging.

Emerdata is the functional successor to SCL and Cambridge Analytica.
It was founded in August 2017, with registration documents listing several people associated with SCL and Cambridge Analytica, as well as the same address as that of SCL Group 's London headquarters.

AggregateIQ is a Canadian consulting and technology company founded in 2013.
The company produced Ripon, the software platform for Cambridge Analytica 's political campaign work, which leaked publicly after being discovered in an unprotected GitLab bucket.

Cubeyou is a US-based data analytics firm that also operated surveys on Facebook, and worked with Cambridge University from 2013 to 2015.
It was suspended from Facebook in April 2018 following a CNBC report.

Six4Three was a US-based startup that created an app that used image recognition to identify photos of women in bikinis shared on Facebook users ' friends ' pages.
The company sued Facebook in April 2015, when the app became inoperable after access to this data was revoked when the original version of Facebook 's Graph API was discontinued.

Onavo is an analytics company that develops mobile apps.
They created Onavo Extend and Onavo Protect, which are VPN services for data protection and security, respectively. Facebook purchased the company in October 2013. Data from Onavo is used by Facebook to track usage of non-Facebook apps on smartphones.

The Internet Research Agency is a St. Petersburg-based organization with ties to Russian intelligence services.
The organization engages in politically-charged manipulation across

Who are the key people involved in the Facebook data privacy scandal?

Nigel Oakes is the founder of SCL Group, the parent company of Cambridge Analytica.
A report from Buzzfeed News unearthed a quote from 1992 in which Oakes stated," We use the same techniques as Aristotle and Hitler.... We appeal to people on an emotional level to get them to agree on a functional level.''

Alexander Nix was the CEO of Cambridge Analytica and a director of SCL Group.
He was suspended following reports detailing a video in which Nix claimed the company" offered bribes to smear opponents as corrupt,'' and that it" campaigned secretly in elections... through front companies or using subcontractors.''

Robert Mercer is a conservative activist, computer scientist, and a co-founder of Cambridge Analytica.
A New York Times report indicates that Mercer invested$ 15 million in the company. His daughters Jennifer Mercer and Rebekah Anne Mercer serve as directors of Emerdata.

Christopher Wylie is the former director of research at Cambridge Analytica.
He provided information to The Guardian for its exposé of the Facebook data privacy scandal. He has since testified before committees in the US and UK about Cambridge Analytica 's involvement in this scandal.

Steve Bannon is a co-founder of Cambridge Analytica, as well as a founding member and former executive chairman of Breitbart News, an alt-right news outlet.
Breitbart News has reportedly received funding from the Mercer family as far back as 2010. Bannon left Breitbart in January 2018. According to Christopher Wylie, Bannon is responsible for testing phrases such as" drain the swamp'' at Cambridge Analytica, which were used extensively on Breitbart.

Aleksandr Kogan is a Senior Research Associate at Cambridge University and co-founder of Global Science Research, which created the data harvesting thisisyourdigitiallife app.
He worked as a researcher and consultant for Facebook in 2013 and 2015. Kogan also received Russian government grants and is an associate professor at St. Petersburg State University, though he claims this is an honorary role.

Joseph Chancellor was a co-director of Global Science Research, which created the data harvesting thisisyourdigitiallife app.
Around November 2015, he was hired by Facebook as a" quantitative social psychologist.'' A spokesperson indicated on September 6, 2018, that he was no longer employed by Facebook.

Michal Kosinski, David Stillwell, and Thore Graepel are the researchers who proposed and developed the model to" psychometrically'' analyze users based on their Facebook likes.
At the time this model was published, Kosinski and Stillwell were affiliated with Cambridge University, while Graepel was affiliated with the Cambridge-based Microsoft Research.( None have an association with Cambridge Analytica, according to Cambridge University.)

Mark Zuckerberg is the founder and CEO of Facebook.
He founded the website in 2004 from his dorm room at Harvard.

Sheryl Sandberg is the COO of Facebook.
She left Google to join the company in March 2008. She became the eighth member of the company 's board of directors in 2012 and is the first woman in that role.

Damian Collins is a Conservative Party politician based in the United Kingdom.
He currently serves as the Chair of the House of Commons Culture, Media and Sport Select Committee. Collins is responsible for issuing orders to seize documents from the American founder of Six4Three while he was traveling in London, and releasing those documents publicly.

Chris Hughes is one of four Facebook co-founders, who originally took on beta testing and feedback for the website, until leaving in 2007.
Hughes is the first to call for Facebook to be broken up by regulators.

How have Facebook and Mark Zuckerberg responded to the data privacy scandal?

Each time Facebook finds itself embroiled in a privacy scandal, the general playbook seems to be the same: Mark Zuckerberg delivers an apology, with oft-recycled lines, such as" this was a big mistake,'' or" I know we can do better.''
Despite repeated controversies regarding Facebook 's handling of personal data, it has continued to gain new users. This is by design-- founding president Sean Parker indicated at an Axios conference in November 2017 that the first step of building Facebook features was" How do we consume as much of your time and conscious attention as possible? '' Parker also likened the design of Facebook to" exploiting a vulnerability in human psychology.''

On March 16, 2018, Facebook announced that SCL and Cambridge Analytica had been banned from the platform.
The announcement indicated, correctly, that" Kogan gained access to this information in a legitimate way and through the proper channels that governed all developers on Facebook at that time,'' and passing the information to a third party was against the platform policies.

The following day, the announcement was amended to state:

The claim that this is a data breach is completely false.
Aleksandr Kogan requested and gained access to information from users who chose to sign up to his app, and everyone involved gave their consent. People knowingly provided their information, no systems were infiltrated, and no passwords or sensitive pieces of information were stolen or hacked.

On March 21, 2018, Mark Zuckerberg posted his first public statement about the issue, stating in part that:

" We have a responsibility to protect your data, and if we ca n't then we do n't deserve to serve you.
I 've been working to understand exactly what happened and how to make sure this does n't happen again.''

On March 26, 2018, Facebook placed full-page stating:" This was a breach of trust, and I 'm sorry we did n't do more at the time.
We 're now taking steps to ensure this does n't happen again,'' in The New York Times, The Washington Post, and The Wall Street Journal, as well as The Observer, The Sunday Times, Mail on Sunday, Sunday Mirror, Sunday Express, and Sunday Telegraph in the UK.

In a blog post on April 4, 2018, Facebook announced a series of changes to data handling practices and API access capabilities.
Foremost among these include limiting the Events API, which is no longer able to access the guest list or wall posts. Additionally, Facebook removed the ability to search for users by phone number or email address and made changes to the account recovery process to fight scraping.

On April 10, 2018, and April 11, 2018, Mark Zuckerberg testified before Congress.
Details about his testimony are in the next section of this article.

On April 10, 2018, Facebook announced the launch of its data abuse bug bounty program.
While Facebook has an existing security bug bounty program, this is targeted specifically to prevent malicious users from engaging in data harvesting. There is no limit to how much Facebook could potentially pay in a bounty, though to date the highest amount the company has paid is$ 40,000 for a security bug.

On May 14, 2018," around 200'' apps were banned from Facebook as part of an investigation into if companies have abused APIs to harvest personal information.
The company declined to provide a list of offending apps.

On May 22, 2018, Mark Zuckerberg testified, briefly, before the European Parliament about the data privacy scandal and Cambridge Analytica.
The format of the testimony has been the subject of derision, as all of the questions were posed to Zuckerberg before he answered. Guy Verhofstadt, an EU Parliament member representing Belgium, said," I asked you six` yes' and` no' questions, and I got not a single answer.''

What did Mark Zuckerberg say in his testimony to Congress?

In his Senate testimony on April 10, 2018, Zuckerberg reiterated his apology, stating that" We did n't take a broad enough view of our responsibility, and that was a big mistake.
And it was my mistake. And I 'm sorry. I started Facebook, I run it, and I 'm responsible for what happens here,'' adding in a response to Sen. John Thune that" we try not to make the same mistake multiple times.. in general, a lot of the mistakes are around how people connect to each other, just because of the nature of the service.''

Sen. Amy Klobuchar asked if Facebook had determined whether Cambridge Analytica and the Internet Research Agency were targeting the same users.
Zuckerberg replied," We 're investigating that now. We believe that it is entirely possible that there will be a connection there.'' According to NBC News, this was the first suggestion there is a link between the activities of Cambridge Analytica and the Russian disinformation campaign.

On June 11, 2018, nearly 500 pages of new testimony from Zuckerberg was released following promises of a follow-up to questions for which he did not have sufficient information to address during his Congressional testimony.
The Washington Post notes that the release," in some instances sidestepped lawmakers ' questions and concerns,'' but that the questions being asked were not always relevant, particularly in the case of Sen. Ted Cruz, who attempted to bring attention to Facebook 's donations to political organizations, as well as how Facebook treats criticism of" Taylor Swift 's recent cover of an Earth, Wind and Fire song.''

What is the 2016 US presidential election connection to the Facebook data privacy scandal?

In December 2015, The Guardian broke the story of Cambridge Analytica being contracted by Ted Cruz 's campaign for the Republican Presidential Primary.
Despite Cambridge Analytica CEO Alexander Nix 's claim in an interview with TechRepublic that the company is" fundamentally politically agnostic and an apolitical organization,'' the primary financier of the Cruz campaign is Cambridge Analytica co-founder Robert Mercer, who $ 11 million to a pro-Cruz Super PAC. Following Cruz 's withdrawal from the campaign in May 2016, the Mercer family began supporting Donald Trump.

In January 2016, Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg told investors that the election was" a big deal in terms of spend,'' and that through" using Facebook and Instagram you can target by congressional district, you can target by interest, you can target by demographics or any combination of those.''

In October 2017, Facebook announced changes to its advertising platform, requiring identity and location verification and prior authorization in order to run electoral advertising.
In the wake of the fallout from the data privacy scandal, further restrictions were added in April 2018, making" issue '' regarding topics of current interest similarly restricted.

In secretly recorded conversations by an undercover team from Channel 4 News, Cambridge Analytica 's Nix claimed the firm was behind the" defeat crooked Hillary'' advertising campaign, adding," We just put information into the bloodstream of the internet and then watch it grow, give it a little push every now and again over time to watch it take shape,'' and that" this stuff infiltrates the online community, but with no branding, so it 's unattributable, untrackable.''
The same exposé quotes Chief Data Officer Alex Tayler as saying," When you think about the fact that Donald Trump lost the popular vote by 3 million votes but won the electoral college vote, that 's down to the data and the research.''

What is the Brexit tie-in to the Facebook data privacy scandal?

AggregateIQ was retained by Nigel Farage 's Vote Leave organization in the Brexit campaign, and both The Guardian and BBC claim that the Canadian company is connected to Cambridge Analytica and its parent organization SCL Group.
UpGuard, the organization that found a public GitLab instance with code from AggregateIQ, has extensively detailed its connection to Cambridge Analytica and its involvement in Brexit campaigning.

Additionally, The Guardian quotes Wylie as saying the company" was set up as a Canadian entity for people who wanted to work on SCL projects who did n't want to move to London.''

How is Facebook affected by the GDPR?

Like any organization providing services to users in European Union countries, Facebook is bound by the EU General Data Protection Regulation( GDPR).
Due to the scrutiny Facebook is already facing regarding the Cambridge Analytica scandal, as well as the general nature of the social media giant 's product being personal information, its strategy for GDPR compliance is similarly receiving a great deal of focus from users and other companies looking for a model of compliance.

While in theory the GDPR is only applicable to people residing in the EU, Facebook will require users to review their data privacy settings.
According to a ZDNet article, Facebook users will be asked if they want to see advertising based on partner information-- in practice, websites that feature Facebook 's" Like'' buttons. Users globally will be asked if they wish to continue sharing political, religious, and relationship information, while users in Europe and Canada will be given the option of switching automatic facial recognition on again.

Facebook members outside the US and Canada have heretofore been governed by the company 's terms of service in Ireland.
This has reportedly been changed prior to the start of GDPR enforcement, as this would seemingly make Facebook liable for damages for users internationally, due to Ireland 's status as an EU member.

What are Facebook" shadow profiles? ''

" Shadow profiles'' are stores of information that Facebook has obtained about other people-- who are not necessarily Facebook users.
The existence of" shadow profiles'' was discovered as a result of a bug in 2013. When a user downloaded their Facebook history, that user would obtain not just his or her address book, but also the email addresses and phone numbers of their friends that other people had stored in their address books.

Facebook described the issue in an email to the affected users.
This is an excerpt of the email, according to security site Packet Storm:

When people upload their contact lists or address books to Facebook, we try to match that data with the contact information of other people on Facebook in order to generate friend recommendations.
Because of the bug, the email addresses and phone numbers used to make friend recommendations and reduce the number of invitations we send were inadvertently stored in their account on Facebook, along with their uploaded contacts. As a result, if a person went to download an archive of their Facebook account through our Download Your Information( DYI) tool, which included their uploaded contacts, they may have been provided with additional email addresses or telephone numbers.

Because of the way that Facebook synthesizes data in order to attribute collected data to existing profiles, data of people who do not have Facebook accounts congeals into dossiers, which are popularly called a" shadow profile.''
It is unclear what other sources of input are added to said" shadow profiles,'' a term that Facebook does not use, according to Zuckerberg in his Senate testimony.

What are the possible implications for enterprises and business users?

Business users and business accounts should be aware that they are as vulnerable as consumers to data exposure.
Because Facebook harvests and shares metadata-- including SMS and voice call records-- between the company 's mobile applications, business users should be aware that their risk profile is the same as a consumer 's. The stakes for businesses and employees could be higher, given that incidental or accidental data exposure could expose the company to liability, IP theft, extortion attempts, and cybercriminals.

Though deleting or deactivating Facebook applications wo n't prevent the company from creating so-called advertising" shadow profiles,'' it will prevent the company from capturing geolocation and other sensitive data.
For actional best practices, contact your company 's legal counsel.

How can I change my Facebook privacy settings?

According to Facebook, in 2014 the company removed the ability for apps that friends use to collect information about an individual user.
If you wish to disable third-party use of Facebook altogether-- including Login With Facebook and apps that rely on Facebook profiles such as Tinder-- this can be done in the Settings menu under Apps And Websites. The Apps, Websites And Games field has an Edit button-- click that, and then click Turn Off.

Facebook has been proactively notifying users who had their data collected by Cambridge Analytica, though users can manually check to see if their data was shared by going to this Facebook Help page.

Facebook is also developing a Clear History button, which the company indicates is" their database record of you.''
CNET and CBS News Senior Producer Dan Patterson noted on CBSN that" there are n't a lot of specifics on what that clearing of the database will do, and of course, as soon as you log back in and start creating data again, you set a new cookie and you start the process again.''

To gain a better understanding of how Facebook handles user data, including what options can and can not be modified by end users, it may be helpful to review Facebook 's Terms of Service, as well as its Data Policy and Cookies Policy.

Note: This article was updated on Sept. 12, 2018 by Brandon Vigliarolo.

Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg in May 2018 at the F8 developer conference.

Image: James Martin/CNET
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