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   Senate Intelligence Report IIIF1-3 - Carter Page - Intro, Background/Limitations, Russian Intelligence

F. Carter Page

Introduction and Findings

Carter Page was the only member of the Trump Campaign 's foreign policy advisers publicly identified as a Russia" expert.''
Page had previously lived in Russia and worked on Russia policy and energy issues. For these reasons, Page was a subject of interest to Russian officials, including Russian intelligence, which had in previous years interacted with Page. As such, the Committee sought to understand Page 's role on the Trump Campaign, his connection to the Russian intelligence services, and any connection between him and Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election.

Prior to joining the Trump Campaign, Page communicated with, met, and provided private business information to Russian SVR officers in New York, whom the FBI believed were acting in a manner consistent with attempts to recruit Page.
Page later was referred to as" Male- 1'' in the complaint filed against three SVR officers in January 2015 in federal court in the Southern District of New York. Page later publicly identified himself as" Male-1" on several occasions, including to Russian officials in New York at the United Nations General Assembly.


Trump named Page as one of his foreign policy advisers as part of an effort to bolster the public perception that Trump had substantive foreign policy advisers in early 2016.
Trump met once with a group of these and other foreign policy and national security advisers on March 31, 2016. Page was not in attendance and never subsequently met with Trump. The Committee found no evidence to suggest that Page made significant contributions to speeches or policy initiatives for the Trump Campaign.

In July 2016, Page was invited to make two addresses in Russia, including an address during the commencement ceremonies at Moscow 's New Economic School( NES), an invitation extended because of his perceived role in the Trump Campaign.
At the commencement ceremony, Page had a brief exchange with then-Deputy Prime Minister Arkady Dvorkovich, about whom the Committee has counterintelligence concerns. In December 2016, following his separation from the Campaign the previous September, Page traveled to Moscow again, where he had a longer meeting over dinner with Dvorkovich.

The Committee found no indication that Page had useful Campaign information for the Russian intelligence services to extract, nor meaningful influence for them to exploit.
Despite Page having little influence on the Campaign, interested Russians may have perceived him as more closely connected than he was. Page was receptive to Russian outreach, and the of the NES speech in 2016 made clear that they invited Page because of his perceived role in the Trump Campaign.

The Trump Campaign directed Page 's separation from the Campaign in September 2016 because of the unwanted media attention he was generating.

Many media reports about Page 's activities in Russia in 2016, as well as almost all assertions in the" Steele dossier,'' remain unverified.
In addition, Page 's claims to the Campaign regarding his activities in Moscow remain unsubstantiated.

Background on Page and Limitations on the Committee 's Investigation

Between 2004 or 2004 and 2007, Carter Page lived and worked in Moscow.
Page worked for Merrill Lynch at the time, and told the Committee that his primary client was the Russian state-owned energy firm Gazprom.

Page, along with other individuals formally associated with the Trump Campaign, was a target of interest for foreign governments seeking to gather information on the Campaign.
Page also advocated for better relations with Russia, a position in concert with Moscow 's official perspective and consistent with candidate Trump 's minimalist posture that sought better relations with Moscow.

[ REDACTED] The Committee had some limited insight into the Russian government and[ REDACTED] interest in Page:[ REDACTED]




The SCO Report cited an email from Russian Press Secretary Dmitry Peskov responding to an inquiry about whether Peskov wished to facilitate introductions for Page to Russian officials during Page 's July 2016 visit, to which Peskov responded," I have read about[ Page].
Specialists say that he is far from being the main one. So I better not initiate a meeting in the Kremlin.''

The Committee interviewed Page and members of the Trump Campaign who interacted with Page.
The Committee also reviewed communications and other documents related to Page. The interviews and materials did not provide a thorough understanding of all of his activities while in Russia during his two visits in 2016.

The Committee had significant challenges in its attempt to understand Page 's activities, including his role as a foreign policy adviser to the Trump Campaign.
After weeks of negotiation and an eventual Committee subpoena, Page produced some electronic documents, some of which included his own annotations and alterations to the original document form, and sat for an interview that lasted six and a half hours. Page 's responses to basic questions were meandering, avoidant, and involved several long diversions. Despite the meticulous records Page kept on his personal hard drive detailing his daily routines, he was unable to recall any details of his trips to Moscow, or the names of senior Russian officials with whom he met, despite using his engagements with them to build his credentials within the Campaign.

Page and U.S. and Russian Intelligence Services

Prior to 2016, Page had encounters with both U.S. and Russian intelligence.

i. Page and U.S. Intelligence Prior to 2016

Page voluntarily met with U.S. intelligence officials and law enforcement, from CIA and FBI, on several occasions from roughly 2008 through 2013.
He told the Committee that" the CIA guys would invite me out to lunch from time to time in New York.'' In a letter to then-Director Comey of the FBI, he acknowledged," Having interacted with members of the U.S. intelligence community including the FBI and CIA for many decades.''





Page and Russian Intelligence

Page told the Committee that he knew of no instance where he was approached by Russian intelligence officers related to the 2016 U.S. election.
However, the Russian intelligence services had previously approached Page years prior to his involvement with the Trump Campaign in an effort to explore an intelligence collection relationship with him. After the FBI publicly exposed those Russian intelligence officers, Page told the FBI that he was" on the books'' with the Russian intelligence services

Beginning in New York City in 2008, Page was approached by, and met with, Russians he was later informed were intelligence officers.
According to the SCO Report, Page met with Alexander Bulatov, a Russian official assigned to the New York Consulate, and" later learned that Bulatov was a Russian intelligence officer.'' In 2013, another Russian intelligence officer, Victor Podobnyy, similarly formed a relationship with Page and met with him numerous times.

In 2015, Buryakov, Podobnyy, and a third Russian intelligence officer, Igor Sporyshev, were indicted for conspiring to act as unregistered agents of a foreign government.
In the complaint, FBI recordings. of the Russians in April 2013 reveal them. speaking disparagingly of" Male-I'' and of their attempted use of Male-I as an intelligence source for Russia.

According to the complaint, FBI agents interviewed Page in June 2013, where he described meeting Podobnyy at a conference in New York City as well as subsequent emails and encounters, where he shared reports about energy matters.

Page deduced he was Male-I when he read the 2015 complaint.
He has since then openly referred to himself as Male-I, including in his interview with the Committee. In March 2017, Page · suggested to the FBI that he had referred to himself as Male-l in a meeting with a Russian official at the United Nations( UN). When the FBI later asked him about this in a subsequent interview, Page stated that everyone in Russia knew he was Male-I, and that his encounter with the Russians at the UN did not portray Page correctly and that Page wanted nothing to do with espionage.

In his interviews with the FBI, Page described his relationship with Russian intelligence as being" on the books,'' a colloquial term for being an intelligence source.
During a March 30, 2017, interview, FBI agents attempted to explain how the Russian intelligence services worked, and suggested that the Russian intelligence services had been tracking Page since his years living in Russia. The agents further, and specifically, stated that the[ REDACTED] might consider Page either an unwitting or witting" on the record'' source for intelligence gathering. Page questioned the assessment, yet said" I 'm sure I 'm on the books,'' and" they know who I am.'' The following day, the FBI again asked Page if he knew what it meant to be" on the books.'' Page reiterated that he considered himself to be" on the books,'' but objected to any characterization that he was" working with'' the Russian intelligence services.
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